HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
TEST 4 STUDY GUIDE
Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
1. Age range of middle adulthood
2. Average life expectancy in the United States today
3. The average adult in middle adulthood __________ height and __________ weight.
4. Compared with earlier and later periods, middle age is influenced most by _________ factors.
5. The term _______ is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.
6. What are the physical concerns of men and women in middle adulthood?
7. During middle age, the ability to hear __________ sounds declines first. Does it decline first among men or women?
8. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by …?
9. What is the MOST common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?
10. The progressive decline of the immune system function is referred to as _______.
11. What may contribute to acute coronary syndrome?
12. The term that is used to describe the midlife transition in which fertility declines is _______.
13. What symptoms have been associated with perimenopause?
14. What is the hormonal change that is associated with menopause in women?
15. What 2 negative side effects led to the reevaluation of hormone replacement therapy?
16. What is the hormonal change that is associated with male menopause?
17. Fluid intelligence & Crystallized intelligence. Which continues to increase in middle adulthood?
18. Religiousness has been associated with what positive results?
19. What percentage of Americans considers themselves to be religious?
Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood
20. Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation. Adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of…? What is the central core of development across the adult years?
21. Be aware of Levinson’s phases and corresponding age ranges and four major conflicts or middle adulthood.
22. Difference between stage theories of development and individual variation approaches focus on.
23. Contemporary life events approach
24. What is the difference between life events and hassles?
25. The five big personality traits identified by Costa and McCrae. Be aware of the results of Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development.
26. According to Vaillant's longitudinal studies what was the most important predictor for an enduring and happy marriage?
27. Vaillant's research showed that at age 50, the best predictors of who would be dead at 75 to 80 years of age were…?
28. Middle-age partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they…?
29. Do most parents report increased marital satisfaction when their children leave home?
30. What is helicopter parenting?
31. In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the primary reason middle-aged and older women cited for wanting a divorce was?
32. The situation of adult children living in their parents' home is MOST successful when…
Physical Development in Late Adulthood
33. What is the average life expectancy for individuals born today in the United States?
34. In industrialized countries, the number of individuals 100 years old or older is increasing at the rate of approximately _______ each year.
35. What is the age range for late adulthood?
36. Cellular clock theory of aging. According to the cellular clock theory of aging, cells can divide a maximum of?
37. Free-radical theory
38. Connection between restricting calories and the oxidative damage created by free radicals.
39. Mitochondria theory
40. Hormonal stress theory and connection with stress
41. Some researchers believe that reduction in acetylcholine may be responsible for?
42. What neurotransmitter helps to control the preciseness of the signal sent from one neuron to another?
43. What is the most influential factor in delaying brain deterioration during old age?
44. Data from the Nun Study demonstrated that ____ effected longevity?
45. Vision and hearing problems experienced in late adulthood.
46. Compared with younger adults, are older adults more or less sensitive to pain?
47. Diseases by gender in late adulthood
48. Do experts recommend strength training/ weight lifting for older adults? Why?
49. Do experts recommend walking for older adults? Why?
50. What are the positive benefits of taking vitamins E, C, and B for older adults?
51. What are the benefits of personal control for the older adult?
52. What is osteoporosis and arthritis?
Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
53. cognitive mechanics vs. cognitive pragmatics
54. selective attention and divided attention differences in young vs. late adulthood
55. Memory: episodic, semantic, explicit, implicit, source, and prospective. Changes in late adulthood?
56. Define Wisdom
57. How might we reduce our chances of losing cognitive impairment when we are older?
58. The common language difficulties for older adults, tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
59. Linked between aerobic exercise and depression in older adults.
60. What percentage of older adults who have depression are untreated?
61. What percentage of suicides involves older adults?
62. What percentage of individuals over 80 years of age has dementia?
63. Alzheimer disease involves a deficiency in the neurotransmitter
64. What is the function of the new cholinerase inhibitor drugs used to treat Alzheimer disease?
65. The neurotransmitter implicated in Parkinson disease is
Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood
66. Erikson’s final stage.
67. life review
68. reminiscence therapy
69. activity theory
70. socioemotional selectivity theory
71. According to Baltes, successful aging is based on…
72. According to the cross-sectional study on self-esteem conducted by Robins and others (2002), which age group has the highest self-esteem?
74. Dangers for men who are NOT part of a social network?
75. Benefits of altruism